Mchitidwewu ndi zomwe zimawoneka koyambirira kwambiri kwa mwanayo ndipo zimayambira zomwe zidzakhale kulumikizana kwamawu. Mwambiri titha kugawa manja mu zachinyengo (kuchita) e wodziwika bwino (yesani kutsanzira china).

Malingaliro achikale pakukula kwa kulumikizana kumagawanitsa atsogoleri m'magulu awiri:

  • Zochita (mwanayo akaloza kuti afunse)
  • Zilengezo )

Malinga ndi katswiri wama psychology waku America a Michael Tomasello (Magwero olumikizirana ndi anthu) malingaliro awa ndi ochepetsa kwambiri. M'malo mwake, m'mayesero angapo amawonetsa momwe mwanayo alili osangokhala pazopempha kuti mukwaniritse, koma amayembekeza kuti wamkulu adzagawana momwe akumvera ndi chinthu; Komanso, manja nthawi zambiri amatha kutanthauza zinthu zomwe kulibe komanso zochitika zomwe zimapitilira zomwe mukufuna. Zochitika izi, zomwe zingawoneke ngati zopanda pake, m'malo mwake amagogomezera kukhala ndi maluso ofunikira kwambiri mbali ya mwanayo: kusaka chidwi cha onse, kuzindikira zazidziwitso ndi ziyembekezo za winayo, kupanga zomwe onse angagwirizane.


Kwa wolemba waku America, chifukwa chake, pali milungu zofunikira zakuzindikira kugwiritsa ntchito manja omaliza omwe, atha, kuthekera kuti mwanayo achite kuyambira miyezi yoyambirira, koma omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito mosamala ndi mwana pafupifupi miyezi 12

Ndipo manja azithunzi? Ngakhale ndizovuta kwambiri pamalingaliro azidziwitso motero zimawonekera pambuyo pake, amayamba kuchepa mwachangu zaka ziwiri wa zaka. Choyambitsa chachikulu ndi kutuluka kwa chilankhulo chamawu yomwe imalowetsa chizindikiro chotsanzira: tikaphunzira mawu, timasiya kupanga chithunzithunzi cha chinthu chomwe mawuwo amatanthauza; pambuyo pake, kugwiritsa ntchito mawu ndikosavuta komanso kotsika mtengo. M'malo mwake, chinyengo chimapitilira kwa nthawi yayitali, ngakhale mawu oyamba atuluke. Gawo loyambirira, limaphatikiza chilankhulo (mwanayo amatha kunena mawu - mwachitsanzo verebu - poliyanjanitsa ndi manja), ndipo pamapeto pake silimasowa kwathunthu. Nthawi zambiri kuposa momwe timaganizira, makamaka, ife achikulire timawonetsanso munthu wolumikizana naye pafupi kuti athandizire kapena kuwonjezera zomwe tikunena.

Kuwonjezera: Michael Tommasello, Magwero olumikizirana ndi anthu, Milan, Cortina Raffaello, 2009.

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zolakwa: Okhutira zimatetezedwa !!
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