A -B - C - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - Q - R - S - T - V

A

Malo okhala ndi mawu: chizolowezi chomveketsa mawu ndi chofanana kwambiri ndi momwe amalankhuliraMarini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

Osasinthika aphasia: [aphasia] Aphasia yodziwika ndi kupanga koperewera, masentensi afupiafupi, mawu ovuta, osokoneza; pakhoza kukhala agrammatism. Momwe mungasiyanitsire bwino phokoso kuchokera pamphaka yopanda phokoso ndi: kukhalapo kwa apraxia wa mawu, kutalika kwa chiganizo, kuchuluka kwa mawu, kupezeka kwa agrammatism kapena slang ndi prosody. Mwambiri, kupezeka kwa mawu owonetsa pakamwa ndi kutalika kwa chiganizo kumalingaliridwa koposa zonse: ngati palibe ziganizo zophatikiza ndi mawu osachepera asanu ndi limodzi (osachepera liwu limodzi mwa khumi) nthawi zambiri sizopanda phokoso (Basso, Kudziwa ndikuphunzitsanso aphasia, 2009: 64).

Afemia: [aphasia] Nthawi yoyamba yanthawi yomwe idzatchulidwe aphasia, wopangidwa ndi Paul Broca kutanthauzira iwo omwe samatha kuyankhula momasuka ngakhale ali ndi kumvetsetsa.

Affricazione: [chilankhulo] Dongosolo la kachitidwe: Kusintha kwa mawu olemekezeka ndi ogwirizana. Chitsanzo: "cagia" cha "nyumba" (cf. nkhani yathu pa Phonetics ndi Phonology)

Kusintha Kosiyanasiyana (ANOVA): [mawerengero, njira yofufuzira] njira yowerengera yomwe imakupatsani mwayi wofanana kuyerekezera magulu osiyanasiyana m'njira imodzi yopeka yopeka yopanga chithunzi, poyerekeza kusiyana pakati pa magulu ndi kusinthasintha kwachisawawa (onaninso Bolzani ndi Canestrari, Malingaliro Amayeso Owona, 1995).

Anteriorizzazione: [chilankhulo] Kachitidwe ka kachitidwe: Kusinthira phokoso lakumbuyo ndi lakunja. Chitsanzo: "tasa" kwa "kunyumba" (cf. nkhani yathu pa Phonetics ndi Phonology).

aposiopesis: [zilankhulo] Kusokoneza mwadzidzidzi chiganizo chomwe sichimapitilira. Monga chithunzi chosasinthika, chimalola kuti owerenga kapena womvera anene mawu ena onse. Pankhani ya aphasias, nthawi zambiri zimachitika popanda kudzipereka kuti musathe kupitiliza chifukwa chovuta pakupanga sentensi kapena mavuto pobwezeretsa mawu.

Kuphunzira kolakwika: [neuropsychology, memory] njira yokumbukira poyambilira idapangidwa kwa odwala amnesic ovuta, yopanga kuwongolera ndikuwongolera kuphunzira kwa chidziwitso kuti tipewe cholakwika ndi kuloweza kwake pamlingo wophatikizika (onaninso Kuphunzira Molakwika Pazokonzanso Kuzindikira: Kubwereza Kotsutsa, 2012; Mazzucchi, Kukonzanso Neuropsychological, 2012).

Apraxia: [neuropsychology] kusokonezedwa kwa kuzindikirika kwa mayendedwe ophunziridwa, kuthana ndi kugwiritsa ntchito kwa zinthu ndi mawu ophiphiritsa. Sikuti chifukwa cha kusintha kwa magalimoto, kuwongolera kwaluntha, kuchepa kwa chidwi kapena kusowa kwazinthu pakuzindikira zinthu (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Maphokoso oyenera: [neuropsychology] apraxia okhudza kugwiritsa ntchito chinthu (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Ideomotor apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia yomwe imakhudza kusintha kosinthika kwapadera, konse kopanda tanthauzo (kutsanzira) komanso kofanizira (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001)

Chikumbutso chopanga: [neuropsychology] mtundu wa apraxia womwe umakhudza kuzindikirika kwa mawonekedwe a geometric (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Mavalidwe apraxia: [neuropsychology] apraxia okhudza kuthekera kuvala (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Makamaka maso: [neuropsychology] apraxia yomwe imaphatikizapo kusintha kwa kayendedwe ka maso (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Marichi Apraxia: [neuropsychology] mtundu wa apraxia womwe umapangitsa kulephera kuchitapo kanthu (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Optic ataxia: [neuropsychology] kuchepera kwa mgwirizano wogwirizira komwe kumaphatikizapo kufikira zolakwika ndi dzanja mpaka pakuwona. Nthawi zambiri amayamba chifukwa cha kuvulala kwa ubongo kumayendedwe owoneka. Sizitengera kulephera kuzindikira chinthu kuti chikwaniritsidwe ndikumvetsetsa, komabe, kulumikizana ndi iyo pamlingo wamagalimoto kumakhala kovuta (onaninso Ladàvas ndi Berti, Buku la Neuropsychology, 2014).

kukudalirani (kapena kudalirika): [psychometry] katundu wa chida choyezera (kuyesa) komwe kumawonetsa kuchuluka kwa kusasunthika kwa zokhazokha pamene miyeso imabwerezedwa. Mwanjira ina, imatiuza momwe mayeso ali odalirika (onaninso Weltkovitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, Statistics for Behaviours Science, 2009).

Chisamaliro: [neuropsychology, chidwi] gawo lolumikizidwa lolingana ndi kuthekera kopatsa zothandizira chidwi pazomwe zili zoyenera, kuchepetsa kusokonezedwa kwa zokambirana zomwe zilipo koma zosagwirizana ndi zomwe zikuchitika. Magawo osankha chidwi amaphatikizanso chidwi, magawo awiri omasukirana komanso kusamalitsa chidwi (Vallar et al., Kubwezeretsa kwa Neuropsychological, 2012).

B

Kuphatikizika Kwilankhulo (kapena Chiyankhulo): [chilankhulo] pamene zilankhulo ziwiri zaphunziridwa nthawi imodzi (onani Marini Mavuto azilankhulo, 2014: 68)

Kuphatikizika kwa Chilankhulo Chimodzi (kapena kuchuluka kwa zilankhulo): [chilankhulo] pamene zilankhulo ziwiri kapena zingapo zidaphunziridwa musanathe koma osati m'mabanja (mwachitsanzo kusamutsa) (onani Marini Mavuto azilankhulo, 2014: 68)

Momwe zilankhulidwe ziwiri zophatikizira (kapena kuchuluka kwa zilankhulo): [chilankhulo] pamene chilankhulo chimodzi kapena zingapo zikugwiritsidwa ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito chilankhulo choyambirira ngati mkhalapakati (onani Marini Mavuto azilankhulo, 2014: 68)

Zoyimira zinayi zoyambirira: [chilankhulo] mwana akaonekera chilankhulo chachiwiri asanabadwe, koma mulimonse usanakwanitse zaka zisanu ndi zitatu (onani Marini Mavuto azilankhulo, 2014: 68)

Motsatira zinenedwe ziwiri: [chilankhulo] pamene mwana wachotseredwa pachilankhulo chachiwiri, koma atatha zaka zisanu ndi zitatu (onani Marini Mavuto azilankhulo, 2014: 68)

Zilankhulo ziwirizi: [chilankhulo] pamene mwana wapatsidwa zilankhulo ziwiri kuyambira masiku oyamba amoyo (onani Marini Mavuto azilankhulo, 2014: 68)

C

Sentensi yonyamula ((kapena mawu othandizira): mawu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira mawu enieni (mwachitsanzo: "Chonde, ndipatseni ...").

circumlocution: [zinenedwe] kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa "kotembenuza mawu" kutanthauza mawu omwe sangabwezeretsedwe (pafupipafupi kwambiri mu aphasias). Chitsanzo: "amene adzadula mkate" kunena "mpeni".

Kutha kwa matchulidwe: [kuphunzira] kuthekera kolemekeza malamulo ndi misonkhano yomwe ilipo mu chilankhulo chathu chomwe chikuyimilira kusintha kwa chilankhulo komwe kumamvedwa kapena kumalingaliridwa kukhala chilankhulo chofotokozedwa ndi graphemes (Tressoldi ndi Cornoldi, 2000, Batire yowunikira luso lolemba ndi kulembera m'makalasi okakamiza)

Augmentative ndi Njira Zina Zoyankhulirana (CAA): kulumikizana kulikonse komwe kumalowa kapena kukulitsa mawu; ndi gawo lazachipatala lomwe limafuna kulipirira kulumala kwakanthawi kapena kosatha kwa anthu omwe ali ndi zovuta kulumikizana (ASHA, 2005, omwe atchulidwa) Konstantine, Kumanga mabuku ndi nkhani ndi CAA, 2011: 54)

Conduites d'approche: [aphasia] kuyesera kufikira mawu kudzera pa zabodza kumayambira kapena ma paraphasias ampingo. Chitsanzo: "la pa ... pasca, pasma, pastia ..." kunena "pasitala" (onani mwachitsanzo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143 e Mazzucchi, kukonzanso kwa Neuropsychological, 2012)

confabulation: [neuropsychology] pamavuto amakumbukiro wamalingaliro ndi chidziwitso "chabwino" chomwe chimakonzedwa ngati kupanga mwadzidzidzi kwa ziganizo kapena zochita sizigwirizana ndi maziko kapena zakale, zamakono kapena zamtsogolo za nkhaniyi (Kuchokera kwa ndevu, G. (1993b). Mitundu yosiyanasiyana yopanga. Cortex, 29, 567-581) - zikomo kwa Ilaria Zannoni

malumikizanidwe: [mawerengero, njira yofufuzira] mgwirizano pakati pa kusiyanasiyana kwina kotero kuti kusiyanasiyana kwa chimodzi kumafanana ndi kusiyanasiyana kwa kwina. Mitundu iwiri yophatikizika imalumikizidwa, kulumikizana kumakhala kwamphamvu. Kuphatikizika kumasiyana pakati pazambiri za 1 (pomwe kusinthasintha kumawonjezeka, kuwonjezeka kosalekeza) ndi -1 (pomwe kusinthasintha kumasiyana, kumakhala kutsika kosalekeza kwa enawo; ndi gawo la 0, pali malo m'malo mwake kusowa kwathunthu pakati pa mitundu iwiriyo.
Kukhalapo kwa kulumikizana, ngakhale kuli kolimba, sikuwonetsa kulumikizana kwapakati pazomwe zimasiyananso (onani Welkowits, Cohen ndi Ewen, Chiwerengero cha Sayansi ya Khalidwe, 2009).

Cueing: [aphasia] chocheperako, phokoso ndi / kapena grapemic malingaliro, operekedwa pochitika kuti wodwalayo sangathe kubwezeretsanso liwu lodziimira palokha (onani, mwachitsanzo, Conroy et al., Kugwiritsa ntchito mayikidwe amtundu wa munthawi yomweyo, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] kuponderezana kwa kubwera kwa ma neuronal kwa mawonekedwe a chandamale. Izi zimachitika ndi zotupa za ma neuron omwe ali pachiwonetsero cha ma axon omwe amafikira gawo la chandamale, kapena ndi ma axon okha (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Zofooka zam'malingaliro: [neuropsychology] mawonekedwe ofatsa a kuchepa kwa malingaliro (onaninso kusowa kwa nzeru kapena kubwezeretsa m'maganizo), kodziwika ndi kuchepa kwapamwamba kwambiri kwa nzeru (IQ pakati pa 70 ndi 50), zovuta kuzolowera chikhalidwe ndikuwoneka zoperewera panthawi yakutukuka

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] kuponderezana kwa kubwera kwa ma neuronal kwa mawonekedwe a chandamale. Izi zimachitika ndi zotupa za ma neuron omwe ali pachiwonetsero cha ma axon omwe amafikira gawo la chandamale, kapena ndi ma axon okha (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Kusintha kwa Neuronal: [neuroscience] kutayika kwapang'onopang'ono kwa kapangidwe kapadera ndi ntchito ya neuron kapena gulu la mitsempha yomwe imatha kutha kwawo (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

muffling: [chilankhulo] Dongosolo la kachitidwe: Kusintha kwa mawu ndi wogontha wofananira. Mwachitsanzo: "panana" wa "nthochi" (cf. nkhani yathu pa Phonetics ndi Phonology)

Kupatuka kwapakati (kumatanthauza kupatuka lalikulu): [ziwerengero] zimayesa kusinthasintha kwa madongosolo osiyanasiyana, omwe amapezeka kuchokera ku mizu lalikulu la kusiyana. Zikuwonetsa kuchuluka kwa zomwe idathayo imamwazikana mozungulira (mwachitsanzo kuchuluka kwake momwe amapatukira pamalowo) koma, mosiyana ndi kusiyanasiyana, gawo ili likuwonetsedwa mu gawo limodzi la muyeso Welkowits, Cohen ndi Ewen, Chiwerengero cha Sayansi ya Khalidwe, 2009).

dysgraphia: [kuphunzira] kulemba movutikira, popanda izi chifukwa cha zovuta zam'mitsempha kapena luntha (Ajuriagu ter et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °.). . ku Di Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: [neuropsychology] chisokonezo chomwe chimakhudza kuzindikirika kwa mayendedwe ophunzirira magalimoto, makamaka omwe amawoneka panthawi yoyeserera. Sizitengera kusowa kwa mota yamagetsi, kuchepa kwa nzeru kapena chidziwitso. Amasiyana ndi apraxia chifukwa mawu oti dyspraxia amatanthauza vuto lomwe limawonedwa pa nthawi ya chitukuko (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Dyspraxia wamankhwala: [chilankhulo] Kusokonezeka kwapakati pakukonzekera ndi kuzindikira mayendedwe ofunikira kuti apange mawu, ma syllable ndi mawu komanso gulu lawo lotsatira (Chilosis ndi Cerri, Verbal dyspraxia, 2009 vd. komanso Sabbadini, Dyspraxia m'badwo wa chitukuko: kuwunika ndi kulowererapo, 2005)

Kusokonezeka kwachiwiri kwa mawu amawu: [chilankhulo] kusakwanira konse kwa zilankhulo komwe kumachitika nthawi yakutukuka, kuwonongeka pang'ono kwa chilankhulo palokha, m'mitu omwe ali ndi chimodzi mwazomwe mwatsatanetsatane: kuvutikira kuzindikira, kusokonekera kwa zinthu ntchito yolankhulirana, kusapeza bwino pamakhalidwe azikhalidwe ndi anthu (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Mwana yemwe ali ndi vuto losalankhula. Kuyesera kwa mankhwalawa ndi chithandizo, Cortina, Turin 2008).

Kulamulira kwa Hemispheric: [neuropsychology] kuchuluka kwa hemisphere imodzi pamlingo wina pakuwongolera kwazidziwitso kapena ntchito yamagalimoto; chifukwa chake ndiye maziko a hemispheric lateralization. Zitsanzo ndi zilankhulo, zomwe zimakhala ndi mphamvu yakumanzere, komanso njira zakutsogolo, zomwenso zili ndi ulamuliro wolondola (wonaninso Habib, Hemispheric Dominance, 2009, EMC - Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [chilankhulo] kubwereza mawu kapena mawu omvera, osamvetsetsa. Zimachitika mu thupi mwa ana makamaka zaka 2-3 (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) komanso zamatenda mwa akulu, mwachitsanzo mu Parkinson.

Zotsatira zoyembekezera: [njira zofufuzira] kusintha kwa zotsatira za kafukufuku chifukwa choyembekezera zotsatira zomwe zadyetsedwa ndi wochita kafukufukuyo kapena ndi zomwe adaziyesa okha. Adafotokozedwa koyamba ndi wamisala Robert Rosenthal yemwe amamuyitanitsa nthawi zina Rosenthal kwenikweni (kapena ngakhale Pygmalion zotsatira o uneneri wokwaniritsa). Ndi gawo lofunikira kwambiri kuti mufufuze momwe zotsatira za umunthu zimapangira chidziwitso chifukwa cha izi zotsatira zake zimakonda kukayika ngati chinthu chofunikira m'maphunziro pazotsatira zamankhwala omwe sagwiritse ntchito gulu lolamulira (mwachitsanzo wadzipereka mankhwalawa kapena m'malo mwa omwe akuyesera) kapena omwe sagwiritsa ntchito gulu lililonse loyang'anira.

Zotsatira: [kuphunzira] Chiphunzitso Cha Chidziwitso cha Kuphunzira Kwambiri

Pygmalion zotsatira: vedi Zoyembekezera

Zotsatira za placebo: [psychology, mankhwala] kusintha komwe kumaperekedwa ndi chithandizo chopanda zotsatira zake zokha ndipo kumalumikizidwa ndi kukhulupirika komwe kumayikidwa mu chithandizo chokha. Izi, chimodzimodzi ndiZoyembekezera, nthawi zambiri chimakhala cholepheretsa pakufufuza momwe chithandizo chimagwirira ntchito ndipo chimayang'aniridwa ndi magulu a maphunziro, omwe amatchedwa awo magulu olamulira, komwe palibe chithandizo chomwe chimaperekedwa kapena chabodza chimaperekedwa

Zotsatira: [kuphunzira] Chiphunzitso Cha Chidziwitso cha Kuphunzira Kwakukulu

Rosenthal zotsatira: vedi Zoyembekezera

hemianopia: [neuropsychology] kutaya masomphenya mu theka la gawo lowonekera (kapena la quadrant imodzi pankhani ya quadrantanopia) zotsatirazi zotupa za optic chiasm, mawonekedwe a optic, kuwala kwa kuwala kapena kuwala kwamakina (onaninso Ladàvas ndi Berti, Buku la Neuropsychology, 2014)

Kukhudzika kwa malo (onani Musanyalanyaze)

mawu akuti: [chilankhulo] kutengera chitsimikiziro chogwiritsidwa ntchito, chitha kutanthauziridwa kuti "kutulutsa kwamtundu pakati pa mapangidwe awiri owoneka (athunthu kapena opanda kanthu) osachepera masekondi awiri" (gawo lamawu), "chipika chongoganizira, kapena malingaliro osavuta kapena ovuta" ( chitsimikizo cha semantic), "sentensi yayikulu ikatsatiridwa ndi otsatizana opangidwa bwino" (gawo lachiyankhulo). (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Cholakwika cha Type I: [psychometry] kukana zachabechabe izi zikakhala zoona.
Mwachitsanzo: ofufuza amalingalira kuti chithandizo chatsopano cha chinenerocho chimawongolera magawo abwino kuposa chithandizo cha chizolowezi; atayesa kukokomeza, akukana H0 (i.e. kuti chithandizo chachiwiricho ndi chofanana) ndikuvomereza H1 (i.e. chithandizo chatsopanocho ndichabwino) koma zenizeni zake chithandizo chachiwiricho chimapereka zotsatira zofanana ndipo kusiyana komwe kupezeka kukugwirizana ndi njira zolakwika kapena zotsatira zamwayi (onaninso Weltkovitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, Statistics for Behaviours Science, 2009).

Cholakwika cha Type II: [psychometry] kuvomereza zonamizira pomwe izi ndi zabodza.
Mwachitsanzo: ofufuza amalingalira kuti chithandizo chatsopano cha chinenerocho chimawongolera magawo abwino kuposa chithandizo cha chizolowezi; atayesa kukokomeza, amavomereza H0 (i.e. kuti chithandizo chachiwiricho ndi chofanana) ndikukana H1 (i.e. chithandizo chatsopanocho ndichabwino) koma zenizeni zochiritsirazi zimapereka zotsatira zosiyana. Kupanda zotsatira mu nkhaniyi, kumbali ina, zimatengera zolakwika zamachitidwe, zolakwika pang'ono chifukwa cha zomwe zimachitika pamilandu, kapena chifukwa cha mphamvu yochepa yolemba (onani nawonso Weltkovitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, Statistics for Behaviours Science, 2009).

F

Zambiri zamasamu: [masamu] Ndi zotsatira za njira zoyesera zomwe sizikuyenera kuwerengedwa, koma zili ndi kukumbukira kale. Mwachitsanzo, kuchulukitsa matebulo ndi ndalama zochulukirapo komanso zochokera. (Poli, Molin, Lucangeli ndi Cornoldi, Memocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Zosefera: [aphasia] amapuma kwathunthu opangidwa ndi mawu, mafoni, masilabo kapena zidutswa za mawu. Amapezeka kwambiri m'miyambi yabodza. "Lero lero ndi tsiku lokongola" (onani mwachitsanzo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

phonology: [zilankhulo] Kulanga komwe kumawerengera luso lazachipembedzo lomwe wokamba nkhani amakhala nalo la mayi ake, ndiye kuti, kachitidwe kamene kakupanga zaka zoyambirira za moyo wamunthu ndipo momwe kusiyana kumakhazikitsidwa pakati pa phokoso lomwe limasiyanitsa tanthauzo ndi mawu omwe musawasiyanitse (Nespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Mtundu wa mawu: [chilankhulo] Njira yomwe imalumikiza mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi gawo lililonse la chiganizo (nkhani, mutu, mneni ...). Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pamawu onse olembedwa komanso omwe apangidwa ndi zithunzi (onani, mwachitsanzo, AA VV, De Filippis expression therapy protocol, 2006).

Fricazione: [chilankhulo] Dongosolo la kachitidwe: Kusinthira mawu ofunikira kapena ophatikizika ndi kukomoka. Chitsanzo: "fasso" kwa "chowonadi" (cf. nkhani yathu pa Phonetics ndi Phonology)

Functors: [zilankhulo] vd. Tsegulani ndi kutseka mawu a kalasi

Ntchito zoyang'anira: [neuropsychology] zovuta za ntchito zamavuto pakukonzekera ndi kudziyendetsa mwa kufuna kwanu, kofunikira mu zochitika zomwe sizingokhala zokha zomwe zimafunikira kuyang'aniridwa kofunikira (onaninso magawo nkhani yathu yantchito yayikulu; Grossi ndi Trojano, Neuropsychology ya Frontal Lobes, 2013).

G

motsetsereka: [chilankhulo] Dongosolo la kachitidwe: Kusintha kwa konsonant ndi semicononant. Chitsanzo: "foia" wa "tsamba" (cf. nkhani yathu pa Phonetics ndi Phonology)

Machitidwe a Batonic: mawonekedwe a manja omwe manja amasunthira kuchokera pamwamba kupita pansi kutsindikiza masentensi a mawu kapena mawu a sentensi (pa gawo la manja. Zofunikira zamankhwala olankhula muzokula, p. 234)

Kuvulala Kwambiri Kwambiri: [neurology]: "kuvulala kwambiri kwa ubongo" (GCA) kumatanthawuza kuwonongeka kwa ubongo, chifukwa cha cranioencephalic trauma kapena zifukwa zina (brain Anoxia, hemorrhage, etc.), monga kudziwa mtundu wa chikomokere (GCS = / < 8 kwa maola opitilira 24), ndi sensorimotor, zovuta zazidziwitso kapena zowonongeka, zomwe zimabweretsa kulumala kwakukulu (cf. Msonkhano wa Consensus: Njira Zabwino Zachipatala mu Kukonzanso Zipatala kwa Anthu Omwe Ali Ndi Ubongo Wambiri).

Gulu lolamulira: [kufufuza njira] pakufufuza komwe kumawerengera momwe zinthu zimasinthira pamagulu a maphunziro, mwachitsanzo, mankhwala, omwe amawerengedwa amasungidwa m'magulu awiri: gulu loyesera, lomwe limalandira chithandizo chofufuzidwa (mosiyana wodziyimira pawokha), ndi gulu lowongolera, lomwe mmalo mwake sililandira chithandizo chilichonse kapena kulandira lingaliro lina (chifukwa chake silikhudzidwa ndi zosiyanasiyanazi). Gulu lowongolera ndiomwe zotsatira za mankhwalawa zimafananizidwa ndi gulu loyeserera kuti muchepetse kukopa kwa zina zomwe zingatheke (onaninso Ercolani, Areni ndi Mannetti, Kafukufuku Mu Psychology, 1990).

I

Zosokoneza mota: [neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] phenomenon yomwe imawonedwa munthawi yomweyo yoyendetsa galimoto (mwachitsanzo kuyenda) komanso ntchito yanzeru (mwachitsanzo kunena mawu onse omwe amayambira kalata yoperekedwa); munthawi izi ndizotheka kuwona kutsika kwa mota, kuzindikira kapena magwiridwe onse. Kusokoneza kwamtundu wamagalimoto kumawerengedwa makamaka pazochitika za sclerosis angapo chifukwa zimachitika pafupipafupi komanso zowonekera kuposa kuchuluka kwa anthu athanzi. (Onani Ruggieri et al., 2018, Mapapu a lesion a kulowererapo kwazinthu zokhudzana ndi post-postural in multiple sclerosis).

Kuphatikiza modal: [neuropsychology] chodabwitsa chomwe chimakhala chophatikiza zambiri kuchokera m'njira zosiyanasiyana zamalingaliro mumalingaliro amodzi. Moyenera, ndi lingaliro lomwe limaphatikizapo kuyanjana pakati pa zochitika ziwiri kapena zingapo zamalingaliro (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Kudalirika: [psychometry] ndimagulu azikhalidwe pakati pa malire awiri (otsika ndi apamwamba) mkati mwake momwe gawo lina (molimba mtima) limapezekera.
Mwachitsanzo: ngati nditapereka WAIS-IV ndi IQ yamasamba zana limodzi ndi makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu zisanu ndi zinayi (102), izi zikutanthauza kuti pa 95% mwayi woti "wowona" wa IQ wa munthu yemwe adawerengedwa ndi wamtengo wapatali pakati pa 97 ndi 107 (onaninso Weltkovitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, Statistics for Behaviours Science, 2009).

Maganizo ena: [psychometry] yowonetsedwanso ndi H1. mumafukufuku akuwonetsa zomwe wofufuzayo amapanga ndipo zimayesedwa kuti ziyeze.
Mwachitsanzo, ngati wofufuzayo akukhulupirira kuti njira yina ikanaperekera chithandizo chosiyana ndi njira yokhayo, H1 ikuyimira kusiyana pakati pa njira ziwiri.
Amatanthauzidwanso kuti malinga ndi zomwe mawu abodza ndi abodza, komanso kutchulapo za phindu la chidwi (onaninso Weltkovitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, Statistics for Behaviours Science, 2009).

Zonena: [psychometry] yawonetsedwanso ndi H0, mofufuza amafotokoza za malingaliro omwe amawoneka kuti ndi owona pokhapokha umboni wotsutsana nawo ungatsutse.
Mwachitsanzo, ngati cholinga chake chikuwonetsa kuti chithandizo chimodzi ndi chothandiza kwambiri kuposa china, H0 ikuyimira lingaliro loti palibe kusiyana pakati pa mankhwalawa.
Amatanthauzidwanso kuti ndi momwe gawo la kuchuluka kwa anthu limafotokozedwera kapena kusiyana komwe kukuyembekezeka (komwe nthawi zambiri kumafanana ndi zero) pakati pa magawo awiri anthu (onaninso Weltkovitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, Statistics for Behaviours Science, 2009).

L

Kutalika Kwambiri Kwa Nkhani (LME): [chilankhulo] Choyambitsidwa ndi a Brown mu 1973, tanthauzo la kutalika kwa sentensi imawonetsa kuchuluka kwa mawu kapena ma morphemes opangidwa ndi wokamba pamapepala - nthawi zambiri - mwa ziganizo 100 (onani mawu). Ndi imodzi mwatsatanetsatane wa luso la zilankhulo pakupanga (onani, Brown, Chilankhulo Choyamba, 1973).

M

Malingaliro Amapa: [aphasia] Hypothesis malinga ndi momwe odwala agrammatic, akumakhalabe bwino, amatha kuvutikira magawo a chiganizo kwa omasulira ena (cf. Boscarato ndi Modena mu Flosi, Charlemagne ndi Rossetto, Lkukonzanso munthu wokhala ndi aphasia, 2013: 57)

Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): [aphasia] njira yothetsera kukonzanso aphasia yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito mawu osungunula (nyimbo ndi nyimbo) mwa kuyimba (onani Norton et al., Therapy ya Molodic Intonation: Zimagawidwa Zomwe Zikuchitika ndi Chifukwa Chake Kuthandizidwira, 2009)

Kukumbukira ntchito: [neuropsychology] Makulidwe omwe amakupatsani mwayi kuti musunge chidziwitso kwakanthawi kuti muwongolere kapena kuwongolera (cf. Baddeley ndi Hitch, Memory Ogwira Ntchito, 1974). Onaninso nkhani yathu Kodi kukumbukira ntchito ndi chiyani?.

Makumbukidwe owonera: [neuropsychology] kutha kukumbukira kuchita kanthu pambuyo pokonzekera (onani mwachitsanzo, Rouleau et al. Kuwonongeka kokumbukira kwamtsogolo mu ziwopsezo zingapo: kuwunika, 2017). Onaninso nkhani yathu yakuzama pa Makumbukidwe amakumbukira mu sclerosis yambiri

Pambuyo-kusanthula: [mawerengero] mitundu ya kusanthula kwa ziwerengero komwe kumaloleza kufotokozera mwachidule zotsatira za maphunziro osiyanasiyana okhudzana ndi mutu womwewo, kuyesa kuchepetsa zotsatira za magwero azotsatira za zotsatira za maphunziro amodzi, ndikupangitsa kufalikira kulikonse kutulukire (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Metacognition: mawu onena za kuzindikira za chidziwitso cha munthu ndipo, munthawi yomweyo, njira ndi malingaliro omwe amayang'anira (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Metafonologia: Kufananiza, magawo ndi kusala mawu omwe aperekedwa pakamwa pamaziko a mpangidwe wawo wamatsenga (Bishop & Snowling, Development dyslexia ndi kuwonongeka kwapadera: chimodzimodzi kapena mosiyanasiyana?, Psychol Bulletin 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

mawerengeredwe (onani Kuumba)

Zotsutsa komanso zopindulitsa: ma exivational morphemes amasintha tanthauzo la maziko (kk.k + + in + a); infphectional morphemes amangosintha zigawo zikuluzikulu za mawu. Mwachitsanzo, jenda kapena nambala: Cas + a (cf. Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

Musanyalanyaze: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological syndrome, nthawi zambiri imayamba chifukwa cha kuvulala kwaubongo, komwe kumakhala kuchepa pakuzindikira kwa malo. Munthu amene akuwonetsa izi akuwonetsa zovuta pofufuza za malo ake okhudzana ndi kuvulala kwa ubongo, kuzindikira mosazindikira za zomwe zimachitika mu gawo la malo amunthu (nthawi zambiri mkati), wopangidwira kapena wowona (onani nkhani yathu) Kunyalanyaza: mbali yakuda ya dziko)

Unilateral spatial negligence (onani Musanyalanyaze)

Vuto lamagalasi: [neuroscience] gulu la mitsempha yomwe imayatsidwa pokhapokha munthu akachita kanthu komanso pomwe yemweyo awona zomwezo zomwe wachita ndi nkhani ina (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [zilankhulo] pogwiritsa ntchito liwu limodzi pofotokoza kapena pempho lomwe lingafune chiganizo chonse. Amakhala ngati mwana adayamba kulankhula chilankhulo. Ex: "cua" ka "Ndikufuna madzi".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] mawu opangidwa molakwika mokhudzana ndi chandamale. Paraphasia ikhoza kukhala yopeka (mwachitsanzo "libbium" ya "buku") kapena semantic ("cholembera" cha "buku"). (onani mwachitsanzo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

Tsegulani ndi kutseka mawu a kalasi: [zilankhulo] mawu a gulu lotseguka (kapena mawu okhutira) ndi maina, maikidwe oyenererana, mawu opatsa ndi miyambo yotsiriza mu -mente; mawu otsekedwa (kapena mawu ogwirira ntchito o functors) ndi matchulidwe, zilembo zosakwanira, zolemba, zolumikizana, mawu othandiza komanso machitidwe. Ngakhale zomwe mawuwo amapereka zimakhudzana ndi semantic, zosangalatsa zimafotokoza ubale pakati pa mawu.

Kusanthula Kwazinthu Zamatsenga: [aphasia] njira yomwe Leonard, Rochon ndi Laird (2008) komwe kumapereka wodwala ndi chithunzi pakati pa pepala ndikupempha kuti abwezeretse mawu ake. Ngakhale atayenda bwino, wodwalayo amafunsidwa kuti apezenso mawu opeka, mawu oyamba, mawu ena omwe amayamba ndi phoneme omwewo ndi kuchuluka kwa masilabo. (onani Boscarato ndi Modena mu Flosi, Charlemagne ndi Rossetto, Lkukonzanso munthu wokhala ndi aphasia, 2013: 47)

Neuronal plasticity: [neuropsychology] Kuthekera kwakuti maselo amitsempha amatha kuchita ntchito zina pakafunika. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Masewera olimbitsa thupi, 2007: 15).

Mphamvu yoyesa mayeso: [psychometry] amatanthauza kuthekera kokana malingaliro abodza, kudzera pa mayeso owerengetsera, pomwe izi zili zabodza.
Mwachitsanzo: ngati mayeso ena okhala ndi mtundu wina wa masamu ali ndi mphamvu 80%, izi zikutanthauza kuti pali mwayi wambiri wopeza 80% womwe ungatipangitse kukana malingaliro abodza, bola izi ndi zabodza (onaninso Weltkovitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, Statistics for Behaviours Science, 2009).

Njira yamachitidwe: [chilankhulo] M'malo mwa phoneme ndi linzake, pomwe zigwirizano za silabasi sizimasinthika (onani, mwachitsanzo, Santoro, Panero ndi Cianetti, Otsika ochepera 1, 2011).

Njira yamapangidwe: [chilankhulo] Kusintha kwa masanjidwe amtundu wa mawu, ndikusintha kwa kuchuluka kwa zinthu ndi kagwiritsidwe kazinthu zophatikizika (onani mwachitsanzo, Santoro, Panero ndi Cianetti, Otsika ochepera 1, 2011)

Ulosi wokwaniritsa: vedi Zoyembekezera

Kupititsa patsogolo Aphasics 'Communicative ufanisi : [aphasia] pragmatic njira yothandizira mankhwalawa a aphasia momwe othandizira olankhula amalongosola njira zonse zotheka kutsimikizira ndikulimbikitsa kulumikizana kwa wodwalayo (onani mwachidule Lipenga mu Flosi, Charlemagne ndi Rossetto, Lkukonzanso munthu wokhala ndi aphasia, 2013: 105 e Charlemagne, njira ya Pragmatic yothandizira mankhwala a aphasia. Kuchokera pamitundu yoyerekeza mpaka njira ya PACE, 2002)

Zolemera: [psychometry] kusinthika kwamasinthidwe a kuchuluka kwa Z ((kutanthauza 0 ndi kupatuka kochokera 1) kukhala nambala wokhala ndi tanthauzo 10 ndi kupatuka kofanana 3. Poyerekeza ndi mtengo wa Z ndiye kuti ndiosiyana pakawonekedwe kokha koma katunduyo amakhalabe yemweyo. Ubwino wake ndikuti zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zosatheka kuti manambala omwe ali ndi mtengo wopanda pake amveke, ngakhale atakhala ochepa kuposa apakati. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pamayeso osiyanasiyana monga, mwachitsanzo, NEPSY-II.

Scalar Scards: [psychometry] kusinthika kwamasinthidwe a kuchuluka kwa Z ((kutanthauza 0 ndi kupatuka kochokera 1) kukhala nambala wokhala ndi tanthauzo 10 ndi kupatuka kofanana 3. Poyerekeza ndi mtengo wa Z ndiye kuti ndiosiyana pakawonekedwe kokha koma katunduyo amakhalabe yemweyo. Ubwino wake ndikuti zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zosatheka kuti manambala omwe ali ndi mtengo wopanda pake amveke, ngakhale atakhala ochepa kuposa apakati. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pamayeso osiyanasiyana monga, mwachitsanzo, WISC-IV.

Zambiri Zambiri: [psychometry] chogwiritsidwa ntchito mayeso angapo (mwachitsanzo mu BVN 5-11) okhala ndi katundu wololera ku IQ (onaninso Int Quentient Quotient).

T alama (T lonse): [psychometry] kusinthika kwamasinthidwe a kuchuluka kwa Z ((kutanthauza 0 ndi kupatuka kozungulira 1) kukhala nambala wokhala ndi tanthauzo 50 komanso kupatuka kwakhumi 10. Poyerekeza ndi mtengo wa Z ndiye kuti mumasiyana pakawonekedwe kokha koma katundu amakhalabe yemweyo. Ubwino wake ndikuti zimapangitsa kupezeka kwa mphambu ndi mtengo wopanda pake mosayang'ana, ngakhale kutsika kuposa pafupifupi (onaninso Ercolani, Areni ndi Mannetti, Kafukufuku Mu Psychology, 1990). Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pama mayeso osiyanasiyana monga, mwachitsanzo, a Nsanja ya London.

Z alama (mayeso onse): [ziwerengero, psychometry] zowonetsa kuchuluka kwa mtengo womwe umasokera pamtengo woyembekezeredwa, kuyerekezera ndi kupatuka kwofananira. Zambiri zili ndi tanthauzo 0 komanso kupatuka koyambira 1 kotero kuti zotsatira za 0 za 0 zikuwonetsa mtengo wogwirizana bwino ndi zoyembekezeredwa, mtengo womwe umakwezeka kuposa 0 umawonetsa mtengo wapamwamba kuposa wapakati ndipo lingaliro lotsika kuposa XNUMX limawonetsa mtengo wotsika kuposa wapakati. Imapezedwa ndikuchotsa mtengo wapakati pamtengo womwe ukuwoneka ndikugawa zonse pang'onopang'ono pakati pa wastani: (mtengo wawonedwa - media) / kupatuka kwabwino (onaninso Welkowits, Cohen ndi Ewen, Chiwerengero cha Sayansi ya Khalidwe, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (onani hemianopia)

R

Kuyesedwa Kwachilungamo Kwosasinthika (RCT): [njira yofufuzira] imafotokozedwa ngati njira yoyeserera yoyeserera chifukwa imalola kuyesa kwathunthu pazosintha za chidwi. Zimapatsanso kuti zomwe kafukufuku amafufuza zimagaidwa mosasankhika (mosasankhika) pagulu loyesera kapena pagulu lolamulira kuti aliyense ali ndi mwayi wofanana mu umodzi kapena wina (magulu osasamala), motero kuchepetsa kuthekera kwakuti Maguluwo ndiosiyana kwambiri wina ndi mnzake, zomwe zimapangitsa kukayikira pazomwe zingachitike chifukwa chosinthira chidwi (onaninso Ercolani, Areni ndi Mannetti, Kafukufuku Mu Psychology, 1990).

Mulingo wamaperesenti: [mawerengero, psychometry] mayimidwe kutengera malo omwe anthu amakhala nawo pagawidwe la kuchuluka kuyambira 1 mpaka 99. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'mayeso ambiri, mwachitsanzo mu Batri yaku Italiya ya ADHD (onaninso Ercolani, Areni ndi Mannetti, Kafukufuku Mu Psychology, 1990).

Reality Oriental Therapy (ROT): [neuropsychology] Therapy yomwe cholinga chake chachikulu ndikupititsa patsogolo kayendedwe ka nthawi, m'malo ndi kudzilemekeza. Pali ROT (yoyesedwa bwino pamisonkhano) ndi ROT yopanda dongosolo, yoyendetsedwa ndi antchito osasamala tsiku lonse. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Masewera olimbitsa thupi, 2007: 13)

Kuchepetsa Syntax Therapy (REST): [aphasia] Chithandizo cha odwala a agrammatic aphasic omwe, m'malo mongoganizira popanga ziganizo zolondola, zimathandizira kugwiritsa ntchito zida zosavuta monga zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi colloquically ndi maphunziro abwinobwino Springer et al., 2000; vd. Besi, Dziwani ndikuphunzitsanso aphasia, 2009: 35)

Kukonzanso [zolankhula]: njira yomwe imaphatikizanso zomwe wogwirizira wapanga posiyira tanthauzo osasinthika koma kupereka fanizo lolondola pakuwonjezera liwu lomwe likusowapo kapena kusintha liwu ndi lolondola kapena loyenera (kuti mumve zambiri onani "Njira zothandizira" Zofunikira zamankhwala olankhula muzokula, p. 235)

zolimba: [psychology, behaviour] zolimbikitsa zomwe zimachulukitsa kapena zimachepetsa kutheka kwa mawonekedwe ena. Kuphatikiza uku kumagawika m'magulu anayi: kuphatikiza, sekondale (kapena kokhazikika), kulimbikitsa koyenera komanso koyipa. Kulimbitsa koyamba ndi komwe kumalumikizidwa ndi kupulumuka (chakudya, chakumwa, kugona, zogonana ...) pomwe kulimbikitsidwa kwachiwiri sikulowerera pazoyambira zomwe zimapeza phindu lolimbikitsidwa chifukwa zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi zoyambitsa zina zomwe zimakhala ndi mphamvu yolimbikitsira. Kutsimikizira koyenera kumakhala kolimbikitsidwa ndi mutuwu ngati kosangalatsa ndikuwonjezera kuthekera kwa machitidwe ena omwe amayanjana nawo pomwe kutsimikizika kosalimbikitsa kumawonjezera kuthekera kwa mchitidwewu pakusiya kukondoweza kosaneneka chifukwa chakugwiritsa kwake (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Malo osungira: [neuropsychology, ukalamba] njira zamaukadaulo, zosiyanirana ndi munthu, kukhazikitsidwa posiyanitsa kapena kubwezera njira za pathological zomwe zikupita. Zimatengera mawonekedwe omwe ali mu neural network omwe amasinthidwa ndi zochitika za pamoyo monga maphunziro, ntchito ndi zosangalatsa (onaninso Passafiume ndi Di Giacomo, Matenda a Alzheimer's, 2006).

S

Magawo Osasankhidwa a Phonetic (SFI): [chilankhulo] (kapena syllabic, kapena protomorphemic fillers) ali ndi malo okhazikika m'mawuwo ndipo mwina amakwaniritsa udindo wa "zikwangwani" zamagulu ogwiritsira ntchito (Bottari et al., Zokongoletsa zapangidwe pakupezedwa kwa morphology yaulere ya ku Italy, 1993, yotchulidwa mu: Ripamonti et al., Lepi: Chinenedwe chodabwitsa cha ubwana, 2017)

Kusanthula Mbali Zam'manja: [aphasia] njira yomwe ikuganiza kuti kuwunikanso kwa chidziwitso kumachitika kudzera mu ma network a semantic malinga ndi lingaliro lamphamvu loti kutsegulidwa kwa mawonekedwe amiseche ya chandamale kuyenera kuyambitsa chandamale pamwamba pa malire ake, Kuthandizanso kuti mawu abwezeretsedwe, pogwiritsa ntchito njira zina zomwe zimagwirizana ndi zomwe zimachitika (onani Boscarato ndi Modena Flosi, Charlemagne ndi Rossetto, Lkukonzanso munthu wokhala ndi aphasia, 2013: 44).

Kumvera mayeso: [mawerengero]: kuthekera kwa kuyesa kuzindikira mitu yokhala ndi chikhalidwe (zotsatira zenizeni), mwachitsanzo kupezeka kwa dyslexia. Mwanjira ina, ndi gawo la maphunziro omwe, kudzera pa mayeso, amayesedwa abwino pamakhalidwe poyerekeza ndi anthu onse omwe ali nacho; kutenga chitsanzo cha dyslexia kachiwiri, kuzindikira ndi gawo la maphunziro omwe poyesa mayeso ena ndi omangika, kuyerekeza ndi chiwerengero cha iwo amene ali osazindikira kwenikweni.
Ngati titcha S chisangalalo, Chiwerengero cha owoneka molondola ndi mayeso (zenizeni positives) ndi B kuchuluka kwa owoneka osapezedwa ndi mayeso (zoipa zabodza), ndiye kuti chidwi chitha kufotokozedwa ngati S = A / (A + B) .

Kuumba: [psychology, behaviour] Kukhazikitsidwa ndi woyeserera poyankha kogwira ntchito. Zimakhala ndi kulimbikitsa mwadongosolo machitidwe a nkhani yomwe imayandikira pang'onopang'ono kuyankhidwa kuti iperekedwe (mwachitsanzo, pang'onopang'ono kubweretsa nyama kuti ikanikizire woperewera) (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Kusunthira chidwi: [neuropsychology] Kusunthira kwa chidwi kuchokera pa chinthu chimodzi, kapena chochitika china kupita ku china, zonse zomwe zili mu chilengedwe chozungulira mutu (Marzocchi, Molin, Poli, Attention and Metacognition, 2002: 12).

Cerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [neuropsychology] kuwonetsedwa kwa chidziwitso ndi zoperewera zotsatizana ndi zotupa za cerebellum. Zochulukazo zitha kukhala zambiri komanso zimakhudza magawo angapo monga kukumbukira kukumbukira, chilankhulo, kugwirira ntchito, kuwunikira komanso kuphunzira njira, kuyang'anira masanjidwe, kusamalira chidwi, kuwongolera komanso kakhalidwe (Schmahmann, Kuperewera ndi kuzindikira, 2018).

Matendawa: [neuropsychology] kusintha kwazinthu zokhudzana ndi zotupa za mitolo yoyera yomwe imagwirizanitsa magawo osiyanasiyana a ubongo (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001).

Balint Holmes syndrome: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological syndrome yodziwika ndi nthawi yomweyo miyendo). Matendawa nthawi zambiri amalumikizidwa ndi zotumphukira za parieto-occipital (onaninso Ladàvas ndi Berti, Buku la Neuropsychology, 2014).

Dongosolo Loyang'anira Supervisor: [magwiridwe antchito] Norman ndi Shallice apereka chitsanzo ndi makina awiri ogwira ntchito. Poyamba ndi kachitidwe kachitidwe kazoyang'anira momwe machitidwe osiyanasiyana ophunzirira apamwamba amaimiridwa, omwe amasankhidwa poyankha kukhudzika kwa chilengedwe, kutengera mtundu wololeza; Kachiwiri, kusankha kwachangu sikokwanira kuchita zinthu zinazake kapena kutsegula kotereku sikogwira ntchito mwatsatanetsatane, Attendedal Supervisor System zomwe zimakonzera kutseguka kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana yamakhalidwe kuti musankhe yoyenera kwambiri malinga ndi momwe zinthu ziliri (onaninso Mazzucchi, Kukonzanso Neuropsychological, 2012).

Somatoagnosia: [neuropsychology] kulephera kuzindikira mawonekedwe amomwe thupi limayendera (onaninso Doron, Parot ndi Del Miglio, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2001)

Sound: [chilankhulo] Dongosolo la kachitidwe: Kusinthira mawu osamva ndi mawu ofananirako. Chitsanzo: "bane" ka "buledi" (cf. nkhani yathu pa Phonetics ndi Phonology).

Kutanthauza kwayeso [ziwerengero]: kuthekera kwa mayeso kuzindikira anthu omwe alibe machitidwe ena (zoyipa zenizeni), mwachitsanzo kusowa kwa dementia. Mwanjira ina, ndi gawo la maphunziro omwe kudzera mu mayeso amakhala opanda ulemu pamakhalidwe poyerekeza ndi anthu onse omwe alibe kwenikweni; potengera chitsanzo cha dementia kachiwiri, mawonekedwe ndi gawo la anthu omwe ali ndi thanzi labwino (opanda dementia) pamayeso ena, poyerekeza ndi onse omwe ali ndi thanzi labwino.
Ngati titcha S mwachindunji, Chiwerengero cha anthu anzeru omwe adazindikiridwa moyenera ndi mayeso (zoyipa zenizeni) ndi B kuchuluka kwa osazindikira omwe akuyesedwa ndi mayeso (positives onyenga), ndiye kuti chiwonetserochi chitha kufotokozedwa ngati S = A / (A + B) .

sitiriyo: [psychology] Kubwereza pafupipafupi kakhalidwe limodzi kapena zingapo. Amatha kukhala amitundu yosiyanasiyana: mota, pakulankhula kolemba kapena kuyankhulidwa, m'masewera, kujambula, etc. (onaninso Galimberti, Mtanthauzidwe Watsopano wa Psychology, 2018).

Kutseka: [chilankhulo] kulowedwa kwa phoneme kosalekeza ndi kosapitirira kamodzi (ex: dal per giallo) (cf. nkhani yathu pa Phonetics ndi Phonology).

subitizing: [neuropsychology] kuthekera komanso kusiyanitsa zinthu zazing'ono (Kaufman et al., Tsankho la chiwerengero chowoneka, 1949).

Sulcus glottidis: [mawu] Kuvulala kochititsidwa ndi kupweteka kwa mucosa wam'kati mwa mawu omwe amapanga sac yomwe imalowa m'malo a Reinke. Amakhulupirira kuti chifukwa cha kutseguka mosalekeza kwa cyst m'masiku oyamba amoyo (cf. Albera ndi Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251).

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Chiphunzitso Cha Chidziwitso cha Kuphunzira Kwambiri kapena Cindows: [kuphunzira] chiphunzitso chomwe chimawoneratu kupezeka kwa njira ziwiri zophunzirira, imodzi yowonera ndi imodzi, yomwe iliyonse ili ndi malire (zinthu zitatu kapena zinayi nthawi imodzi). Zambiri zimatha kusinthidwa, motero zimaphunziridwa, ngati zigawidwa pa njira zonse (zowoneka ndi zowerengera) m'malo mwa njira imodzi (mwachitsanzo, zolembedwa ndi zithunzi); Izi zimatchedwa njira.
Ngati, kumbali ina, titapereka chidziwitso chofananacho m'njira zingapo (zowoneka ndi zowerengera) mmalo mwanjira imodzi yokha (mwachitsanzo, zowerengera), malingaliro awa amalosera kuwonongeka pakuchita komwe kumalumikizidwa ndi kuchuluka kwa kukumbukira ntchito; Izi zimatchedwa redundancy zotsatira (onaninso Mayer ndi Fiorella, Mfundo Zothandiza Kuti muchepetse Kupanga Zambiri mu Kuphunzira Kwa Multimedia: Kugwirizana, Kusindikiza, Kuphatikizanso, Kukwanira Pazaka, ndi Mfundo Zoyeserera Zoyeserera, 2014)

Chuma Chuma (Njira Yokhazikitsira Chizindikiro): [psychology, conduct] njira yamaganizidwe yomwe imakhala yopanga "mgwirizano" pakati pa mutu ndi kholo lake kapena mphunzitsi, kudzera momwe malamulo amakhazikitsidwa; chinthu chophiphiritsa (kapena chizindikiro) chimaperekedwa chifukwa chamakhalidwe oyenera omwe amafunikira malamulowa, pomwe chizindikiro chilichonse chidzachotsedwa kapena sichidzaperekedwa chifukwa chophwanya zomwezo. Mukafika pamakonzedwe ochulukiratu, izi zidzasinthidwa kukhala bonasi yomwe idagwirizana kale (onaninso Vio ndi Spagnoletti, Ana Olimbikitsa Kuchita Zinthu ndi Othandizira: Maphunziro a Kholo, 2013).

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n'loonadi: [psychometry] digiri yomwe chida china (mayeso) chimayesa chidwi chosintha. Imapangidwa makamaka pazovomerezeka, zotsimikizika ndi zotsimikizika komanso zomangamanga (onaninso Statistics for Behavioral Science, Welkowitz, Cohen ndi Ewen, 2009).

Mtengo woyipa wolosera: [zowerengera] zotsogola zam'mbuyomu zoyesa kuti muyerekeze kuchuluka kwa maphunziro omwe adadziwika kuti sanali kukhala ndi chikhalidwe (zoyipa zenizeni) pokhudzana ndi zonse zomwe sizili ndi machitidwe omwewo (zoipa zenizeni + zabodza zopanda pake). Mwachitsanzo, tikadakhala kuti timayesedwa kuti tipeze maphunziro a aphasic, mtengo wolosera wolakwika ukhoza kukhala mulingo pakati pa maphunziro athanzi omwe amadziwika bwino ndi mayesowo polemekeza kuchuluka kwathunthu ndi aphasics omwe alibe poyesa (mayeso athanzi + aphasic osankhidwa molakwika ngati athanzi)
Ngati titcha VPN mtengo wolosera woyipa, Zambiri zomwe zadziwika bwino mitu yokhala ndi B komanso kuchuluka kwa maphunziro a aphasic omwe atchulidwa molakwika ngati aphasic titha kufotokozera zamphamvu zolosera motere: VPN = A / (A + B).

Mtengo wabwino wolosera: [mawerengero] chotsatira chakuthekera kwa mayeso kuti athe kuyerekeza kuchuluka kwa mitu yoyesedwa moyenera kuti ali ndi chikhalidwe (zotsatira zenizeni) mwaulemu wa onse omwe ali ndi chikhalidwe chomwechomwecho (maumboni enieni + onena zabodza). Mwachitsanzo, tikadakhala kuti timayesedwa kuti tipeze maphunziro a aphasic, mtengo wolosera wabwino ungakhale mulingo pakati pa aphasics omwe amadziwika bwino ndi mayesowo poyerekeza ndi kuchuluka kwa ma aphasics komanso ma aphasics omwe ali oyenera pa mayesowo molakwika ngati aphasic.
Ngati titcha VPP mtengo wolosera woyenera, Nkhani yonse yodziwika bwino ya aphasic ndi B yathunthu yamaphunziro abwino omwe adapezeka molakwika ngati aphasic titha kufotokozera zabwino zolosera motere: VPP = A / (A + B).

Kuwononga Cows (njira yochepetsera malingaliro): njira ya kuloweza [neuropsychology] yoyang'ana kwambiri kuchepa kwapang'onopang'ono kwa malingaliro okhudzana ndi chidziwitsocho kuti akumbukiridwe, mutatha gawo lomaliza kuphunzira (onaninso Glisky, Schacter and Tulving, Kuphunzira ndi kusunga mawu okhudzana ndi makompyuta pakompyuta yomwe ili ndi odwala omwe ali ndi vuto:).

masiyanidwe: [kuwerengera] muyeso wa kusiyanasiyana kwa kuchuluka kwa parameta kuzungulira njira zawo; imapangitsa kuchuluka kwa momwe izi zimasinthira motsatizana kuchokera ku tanthauzo la masamu (onaninso Vio ndi Spagnoletti, Ana Olimbikitsa Kuchita Zinthu ndi Othandizira: Maphunziro a Kholo, 2013).

vergeture: [liwu] kukhumudwa kwa gawo laulere la chingwe cha mawu ndikumamatira kwa mucosa kupita ku mawu ophatikizika a (cf. Albera ndi Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251)

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