Zambiri mwa zomwe zimachitika pakulankhula mu zaka zakukula zimangokhala kwa ophunzira kapena, makamaka, pazaka zoyambira kuphunzira. Zocheperako, komabe, ndi maphunziro omwe akukhudzidwa kukulitsa chilankhulo muunyamata.

Mu 2017, kuwunika mwadongosolo kwa Lowe ndi anzawo [1] kuyerekezera maphunziro angapo pakupititsa patsogolo mawu omveka bwino mwa achinyamata omwe akufuna:

  • njira yamisili
  • kufananizira pakati pa njira yamafoni ndi yamisala
  • njira yachikhalidwe yophatikizira mafoni

Ngakhale panali maphunziro ochepa (13), omwe sanapezeke mwapamwamba kwambiri komanso momwe amapangira masitayelo, olemba afikirabe pamaganizidwe osangalatsa (pang'ono).

Zochita za Semantic

Zotsatira za mtundu uwu wa kulowererapo ndizochepa. Kafukufuku m'modzi yekha mwa izi zinawerengedwa [1] adawongolera zambiri. Chithandizo chomwe chafotokozedwa paphunziroli (mayeso oyenda mosasamala kwa anyamata 54 pakati pa zaka 10 ndi 15,3) zidakhazikika pa:

  • magawo a mawu kudzera pa mapu a malingaliro
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito mawu ofanana, antonyms, mawu apamwamba ndi tanthauzo

Chithandizocho chinatenga milungu 6, ndipo magawo awiri a mphindi 2 pa sabata. Gulu lowongolera lidalandila chithandizo chogwirizana ndi nkhani (kapangidwe ka nthano, kufotokoza nthano ndi kumvetsetsa ndi zochitira). Magulu onse awiriwa, pomaliza, adawonetsa kuwongolera kwakukulu komanso kusinthika pang'ono kwa mawu osazindikirika.

Kuyerekeza pakati pa kulowerera kwa semantic ndi phonological

Kafukufuku awiri adafanizira kulowererapo kwa mawu ndi mawu osangalatsa.

Kafukufuku wopangidwa ndi a Hyde Wright ndi anzawo [2], opangidwa ndi ana 30 azaka zapakati pa 8 ndi 14 kwa nthawi yayitali masabata 5 (katatu pa sabata), poyerekeza:

  • kulowererapo kwa chifanizo: kuwonetsera kolimbikitsa komwe kumatsatiridwa ndi mafunso azamisiti (mwachitsanzo. Kodi ndi mawu aatali kapena afupikitsa?)
  • kuchitapo kanthu kwa semantic: chiwonetsero chotsata chomwe chimatsatiridwa ndi mafunso amisomali (mwachitsanzo mungafotokoze chithunzichi?)
Mutha kukhala ndi chidwi ndi: PhonoClick! Nkhani za mafoni

Malinga ndi kafukufukuyu, kulowererapo kwa zamisala zinawoneka zothandiza kwambiri pazofananira M'mawu osaphunzitsidwa (nthawi yayitali yamankhwala yokonzekera semantic idakhalapo kawiri kuposa momwe amachitira chithandizo chamankhwala).

Pakafukufuku yemwe adafanana, Bragard ndi anzawo [3] adawona kuti:

  • Ana omwe ali ndi vuto la phonological adachita bwino kulandira chithandizo cha semantic
  • Ana omwe ali ndi mavuto amisala adayankha bwino chithandizo chamankhwala

Kuphatikizika kwa phonological ndi semantic

Maphunziro asanu ndi awiriwo omwe adawerengedwa, kupatula kusiyana kwakanthawi (chithandizo chawokha kapena chaching'ono), zonse zikuwonetsa kukonzanso.

Njira yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri imakhala ya Kupanga mamapu a malingaliro ndi zikwangwani ndi mawu atsopano omwe adaphunziridwa; kulowererapo kwa chifanizo kumafotokozedwa m'maphunziro ochepa, koma nthawi zambiri zimakhudza zochitika monga bingo ndi zokuthandizira phonological zokhudzana ndi mawu atsopano omwe aphunziridwa.

Kutalika kwa kulowererako kumasiyana pakati pa milungu isanu ndi umodzi ndi misonkhano ya mphindi 6 mpaka 10 kwa imodzi, kawiri kapena katatu pa sabata.

Kuphatikizika kwa phonological ndi semantic

Ngakhale panali kafukufuku wochepa (komanso mtundu wawo wonse) zidatheka kuti olemba athe:

  • Kulowerera chilankhulo chomvekera ngakhale muunyamata kumatha kupititsa patsogolo zinthu zambiri
  • Kuphatikiza kwa mafonolo-semantic kumawoneka kuti ndikokonda njira zangokhalitsa phonology kapena semantic

[1] Lowe H, Henry L, Müller LM, Jhot VL. Kulowerera mawu kwa achinyamata omwe ali ndi vuto la chilankhulo: kubwereza kwadongosolo. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2018;53(2):199-217.

[2] JOFFE, VL, 2006, Kupititsa patsogolo chilankhulo ndi kulumikizana kwa ana a sukulu za sekondale. Mu J. Clegg ndi J. Ginsborg (eds), Zovuta Zilankhulo ndi Kusowa Pagulu: Zomwe Ungachite (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 207-216.

Mutha kukhala ndi chidwi ndi: Kuwunika kwa chilankhulo mwa akulu: kuyesa

[3] HYDE WRIGHT, S., GORRIE, B., HAYNES, C. ndi SHIPMAN, A., 1993, Ndi dzina ndani? Kuyerekeza mankhwala othandizira kupeza mawu pogwiritsa ntchito njira zamatsenga ndi mafoni. Kuphunzitsa ndi Kulankhula kwa mwana kwa mwana, 9, 214–229.

[4] BRAGARD, A., SCHELSTRAETE, M.-A., SNYERS, P. ndi JAMES, DGH, 2012, Kupeza mawu kwa ana omwe ali ndi vuto la chinenerocho: kuphunzira kawiri-kawiri. Ntchito Zolankhula, Kuyankhula ndi kumva M'masukulu, 43 (2), 222–232.

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