Mayeso ambiri amatchulidwe ndi nthano [1] amagwiritsa ntchito zithunzi ngati chothandizira kupangira mawu ndi mawu. Mayesero ena amagwiritsa ntchito zinthu zakuthupi. Chifukwa chiyani? Malingaliro ovomerezeka kwambiri pakukonzekera chilankhulo amavomereza pakupezeka kwa malo amodzi azamalamulo (sizingakhale zomveka kuganiza kuti pali malo achimodzimodzi pazithunzi zomwe timaziwona ndi zina zamawu omwe timamva), koma nthawi yomweyo samakhulupirira kuti njira zolowera zosiyanasiyana zimawapeza chimodzimodzi chomasuka.

 

Kwa ena zitha kuwoneka zazing'ono, mwachitsanzo, kuti chithunzi cha nyundo chitha kutsimikizira kufulumira kwa mawonekedwe a nyundo kuposa liwu loti "nyundo" (omalizirayi, monga mawu onse mchilankhulo chathu, mosasinthasintha); komabe, titha kutsogozedwa kuganiza kuti chifanizo cha nyundo komanso mawu oti "nyundo" ndi milungu chabe mfundo zofikira ku lingaliro la nyundo, choncho mosasamala kanthu za njira, mawonekedwe azamasewera amatsegulidwa kokha ndi lingaliro la nyundo. Kafukufuku wina, kuphatikiza Woumba wakale wa 1975 [2] awonetsa kuti izi sizomwe zili choncho, ndipo achita izi posonyeza nthawi zosiyanitsira mayina kutengera njira ina yomwe agwiritsa ntchito.

 

M'malo mwake, kuyambira chaka chachiwiri cha sukulu ya pulayimale kupita mtsogolo, kuwerenga mawu ndikofulumira kuposa kutchula dzina lake, ndizowona kuti kupatsidwa chinthu (mwachitsanzo, tebulo) pagulu, ndi mofulumira kwambiri pamene chinthucho chifotokozedwa ngati fano osati monga mawu olembedwa. Olemba ambiri amalankhula motere mwayi wopeza (kulumikizana molunjika pakati pa zolimbikitsa ndi tanthauzo) e ubale wabwino (kulumikizana pakati pazomangamanga zolimbikitsira ndi semantic zomwe zimalumikizidwa ndikuchita kwake) kwa zinthu - ndi zithunzi - mokhudzana ndi mawonekedwe amalingaliro.


 

Ndi mwayi uti womwe tili nawo womwe tili ndi umboni wokwanira?

  1. Zinthu zili ndi mwayi wofikira pamalingaliro amalingaliro pokhudzana ndi mawu [2]
  2. Mawu ali ndi mwayi wopeza mawonekedwe amawu poyerekeza ndi zithunzi [2]
  3. Makamaka, mwazinthu zonse zamalingaliro, zinthu zili ndi mwayi wopeza zomwe zikuyenera kuchitika [3]

 

M'zaka zaposachedwa, ndi kutuluka kwa "ophatikizidwa" malingaliro (onani, mwa ena, Damasio) zoyeserera zowonjezereka zakhala zikuchitika pakuwongolera kofananira kokhudzana ndi zinthu zomwe timagwiritsa ntchito. Pakafukufuku waposachedwa [4] anthu adafunsidwa kuti ayankhe (posunthira lever kutsogolo kapena kumbuyo) atawona zithunzi, posankha ngati:

  • Kuyesa A: chinthucho chinagwiritsidwa ntchito kulunjikitsa thupi (monga: mswachi) kapena kutali ndi icho (ex: nyundo)
  • Yesani B: Chinthucho chinali chopangidwa ndi manja kapena chinali chachilengedwe

 

Olembawo adapita kukawona zotsatira zake, kapena ngati ophunzirawo sanachedwe kuyankha pakakhala mgwirizano pakati pa mtundu wa chinthucho ndi kayendedwe ka lever (mwachitsanzo: wamsuwachi, kapena chinthu choti ndigwiritse ntchito - lever pansi). Ngati, poyambirira, kupezeka kwa mgwirizano kumawoneka ngati kopepuka, zinali zosangalatsa kudziwa kuti, ngakhale poyesa B, pomwe funso silinali logwirizana ndi kudzipangira nokha kapena kutali ndi inu, zotsatira zake Kodi zachitika mulimonse. Mwanjira ina, chithunzi cha chinthucho "chimayambitsa" chochitikacho mosachedwa ngakhale funso lomwe tifunsidwa silikugwirizana ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito kake.

 

Kufikira mwayi, chifukwa chake, kumawoneka ngati chochitika chomwe sichimangokhudza mawonekedwe a chinthucho, komanso thupi lathu ndi momwe timayanjanirana nazo.

zolemba

 

[1] Andrea Marini, Sara Andreetta, Silvana del Tin & Sergio Carlomagno (2011), Njira yofananira pakusanthula chilankhulo cholemba mu aphasia, Aphasiology, 25:11,

 

[2] Woumba, MC, Faulconer, B. (1975). Nthawi yakumvetsetsa zithunzi ndi mawu.Nature,253, 437-438.

 

[3] Chainay, H., Humphreys, GW Mwayi wopezeka kuchitapo kanthu pazinthu zokhudzana ndi mawu. Bulletin & Kuwunika Kwamaukadaulo 9, 348-355 (2002). 

 

[4] Scotto di Tella G, Ruotolo F, Ruggiero G, Iachini T, Bartolo A. Kulowera kutali ndi thupi: Kufunika kwa malangizo ogwiritsira ntchito polemba zochitika zokhudzana ndi zinthu. Quarterly Journal of Zoyeserera Psychology. 2021;74(7):1225-1233.

 

 

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